The development of short supply food chains (SSFCs) is a noteworthy phenomenon in Europe. This paper questions whether these SSFC contribute or not to the preservation and/or development of urban agriculture in the Ile-de-France Region (Paris and surrounding areas), where agriculture still represents a major land use activity (more than 50%). Based on documentary and empirical research the analysis shows that a quarter of farms are involved in SSFC in this region. Taking different forms, these SSFC initiatives are for the majority very recent, they often develop in the frame of hybrid forms of farming. Even though the contribution of SSFC in the total food supply of the Parisian region is poorly informed, and probably very small, the recent interest of consumers, inhabitants, and territorial stakeholders in organic and/or local food is real and has encouraged various types of incentives and commitments. The development of SSFC in the Paris region nevertheless faces numerous obstacles such as the scarcity of land and labour and the environmental impacts that still remain controversial. Promoting the role of SSFCs in the preservation of a sustainable urban agriculture requires access to more statistical and comparative data, which are currently unavailable.